Government of Pakistan
|Formation||August 14, 1947|
|Formation document||Constitution of Pakistan|
|Country||Islamic Republic of Pakistan|
|Seat of government||Islamabad|
|Chairman of the Senate||Sadiq Sanjrani|
|Lower house||National Assembly|
|Speaker of the National Assembly||Asad Qaiser|
|Meeting place||Parliament House|
|Head of state||President (Arif Alvi)|
|Head of government||Prime Minister (Imran Khan)|
|Meeting place||Cabinet secretariat|
|Ministries||30 (25 Federal Ministers, 5 Ministers of state and 5 advisors)|
|Responsible to||National Assembly|
|Court||Supreme Court of Pakistan|
|Chief judge||Chief Justice (Gulzar Ahmed)|
The Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان, romanized: hakúmat-e pákistán) abbreviated as GoP, is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces, two autonomous territories, and one federal territory of a parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Effecting the Westminster system for governing the state, the government is mainly composed of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, in which all powers are vested by the Constitution in the Parliament, the Prime Minister and the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts and amendments of the Parliament, including the creation of executive institutions, departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court. By constitutional powers, the President promulgates ordinances and passes bills.
The President acts as the ceremonial figurehead while the people-elected Prime Minister acts as the Chief Executive (of the executive branch) and is responsible for running the federal government. There is a bicameral Parliament with the National Assembly as a Lower house and the Senate as an upper house. The most influential officials in the Government of Pakistan are considered to be the Federal Secretaries, who are the highest ranking bureaucrats in the country and run cabinet-level ministries and divisions. The judicial branch systematically contains an apex Supreme Court, Federal Shariat Court, High courts of five provinces, district, anti-terrorism, and the green courts; all inferior to the Supreme Court.
The full name of the country is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. No other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases. The "Pakistan Government" or "Government of Pakistan" are often used in official documents representing the federal government collectively. Also, the terms "Federal" and "National" in government institutions or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. As the seat of government is in Islamabad, "Islamabad" is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. On 4 August 2020, the Government released a new political map that maintained the Pakistani claim on Junagadh, Manavadar, and Sir Creek. The map also showed the Islands of Churna and Astola as part of Pakistan for the first time.
Federal law and Constitution
The Federal Government is Subject to the Constitution. The executive authority of the Federation shall be exercised in the name of the President by the Federal Government, consisting of the Prime Minister and the (Federal) Ministers, which shall act through the Prime Minister, who shall be the chief executive of the Federation.
In the performance of his functions under the Constitution, the Prime Minister may act either directly or through the (Federal) Ministers.
The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of Pakistan are set down in major parliamentary legislation (a term inherited from the United Kingdom), such as the Exit Control List, the Pakistan Penal Code, and the Frontier Crimes Regulations. By the Article 246th and Article 247th to the constitution, the Islamic Jirga (or Panchayat) system has become an institution for local governance. The 1950s reforms in the government administration, the constitutional law and jurisprudence in Pakistan have been greatly influenced by the United States Of America ' legal system. Since the 1970s, the traditional jirga-based law has also influenced the country's judicial development.
Branches of government
- The National Assembly is the lower house and has 342 members. 272 are elected directly by the people, while 70 seats are reserved for women and religious minorities.
- The Senate is the upper house and has 104 senators elected indirectly by members of provincial assemblies for six-year terms.
The Parliament enjoys parliamentary supremacy. All the Cabinet ministers as well as the Prime Minister must be members of Parliament (MPs), according to the constitution. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet Ministers are jointly accountable to the Parliament. If there is a policy failure or lapse on the part of the government, all the members of the cabinet are jointly responsible. If a vote of no confidence is passed against the government, then the government collapses and a new one must be formed.
By general definition, the executive branch of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branch – an attempt to preserve individual liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history.
Prime Minister and Cabinet
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیراعظم; lit: 'Wazir-e- Azam), is the executive head of government of Pakistan, constitutionally designated as the Chief Executive (CE). Popularly elected by direct elections in the parliament, the Prime minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as well as running the government operations.
The Prime Minister makes key appointments on various important positions, including;
- The federal secretaries as head of cabinet- level ministries
- The chief secretaries of the provinces
- Key administrative and military personnel in the Pakistan Armed Forces
- The chairmen of large public sector organisations and corporations such as NHA, TCP, PIA, PNSC etc.
- The chairmen and other members of the federal commissions and public institutions
- Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countries
The Cabinet can have a maximum of 11 percent (50 members including the Prime Minister) of the total strength of the Parliament. Each Cabinet member must be a member of Parliament (MP). The Cabinet Ministers chair the Cabinet and are further assisted by the Cabinet Secretary of Pakistan, whose appointment comes from the Civil Services of Pakistan. Other Ministers are Ministers of State, junior members who report directly to one of the Cabinet Ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government.
Elected for a five-year term by an indirect election, the electoral college consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly and the four provincial assemblies, the president is now not eligible for reelection (18th amendment). However no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president may resign or be impeached and removed from office for incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament.
The President enjoys all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 41-Article 47.
The President is responsible for making a wide variety of appointments.
- Governors of the Four Provinces
- The Chief Justice (after concluding the consultation with the Prime Minister)
- The Chief Election Commissioner (Consultation required from the Prime Minister)
- The Attorney General and Comptroller and Auditor General
The President, as Head of State also receives the credentials of Ambassadors from other countries, whilst the Prime Minister, as Head of Government, receives credentials of High Commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The President of Pakistan can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence, reprieve and respite, and remit, suspend or commute any sentence passed by any court, tribunal or other authority, particularly in cases involving a death sentence. The decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the President are independent of the opinion of the Prime Minister or the Parliamentary majority. In most other cases, however, the President exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Pakistan's independent judicial system began under the British Raj, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. Institutional and judicial procedures were later changed, in 1950s, under the influence of American legal system to remove the fundamental rights problems. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Provincial High Courts, District Courts, Anti-terrorism courts, Sharia courts, and Environmental courts all over the country; Supreme Court being the superior court. The Supreme Court of Pakistan consists of a Chief Justice, and Senior Justices appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of Pakistan. The Constitution does not fix the number of justices of the Supreme Court, though it can be fixed by Parliament through an act signed by the President.
The Constitution grants powers to the Supreme Court to make judicature transfers. Although the proceedings in the Supreme Court arise out of the judgement or orders made by the subordinate courts, the Supreme Court reserves the right to transfer any case, appeal or proceedings pending before any High Court to any other High Court.
Supreme Judicial Council
Misconduct of judges is highly intolerable as is mentioned in the constitution. Under the mainframe of the Supreme Judicial Council Article 209 an inquiry into the capacity or conduct of a Judge, who is a member of the Council, may be conducted.
The civil service of Pakistan is the permanent bureaucracy of the Government of Pakistan. The civil servants are the permanent officials of the government, occupying a respected image in the civil society. Civil servants come from different cadres (e.g. Pakistan Administrative Service, Police Service of Pakistan etc.) after passing the CSS examinations. Not all the employees of the Government of Pakistan are civil servants; other employees of the Government of Pakistan come from the scientific institutions, state-owned corporations and commissioned military science circles.
In the parliamentary democracy, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which are also elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The cabinet and its ministers are expected to lay down the policy guidelines, and the civil servants are responsible for implementing and enforcing it.
The federal secretaries are the most senior, experienced, and capable officials in the country. Each ministry/division has its Secretary to oversee and enforce the public policy matters.
The secretaries, who are basic pay scale (BPS)-22 grade officers, are largely considered to be the most powerful officials in the country. Due to the importance of their respective assignments, there are twelve specific federal secretaries which are considered to be the most vital in the Government of Pakistan. These include the Secretary Establishment (responsible for civil service matters), Secretary Commerce (responsible for trade), Secretary Cabinet (responsible for Cabinet Division), Secretary to the Prime Minister (responsible for Prime Minister's Office), Secretary Interior (responsible for law and order), Secretary Finance (responsible for the country's treasury), Secretary Foreign Affairs (responsible for foreign relations), Secretary Maritime Affairs (responsible for ports and shipping), Secretary Power (responsible for the electricity and power sector), Secretary Planning and Development (responsible for development projects), Secretary Petroleum (responsible for the petroleum sector) and Secretary Industries (responsible for industrial development).
Management of major crisis situations in the country and coordination of activities of the various Ministries in such situations are the functions of the Cabinet Division. Appointment for the chairman of the FPSC, the prestigious body responsible for the recruitment of elite bureaucrats, is made by the President after consulting the Prime Minister, according to Article 242 of the Constitution.
Elections and voting system
Since 1947, Pakistan has an asymmetric federal government, with elected officials at the national (federal), provincial, tribal, and local levels. Constitution has set the limit of government for five years, but if a Vote of no confidence movements takes place in the parliament (and prelude of movements are proved at the Judicial branch), the government falls and immediately replaced with caretaker government initiated by the president (consultation of Prime Minister also required to make such move), in regards to Article 58 of the constitution.
There has been four times that the martial law has been in effect, and controversially approved by the supreme court. Through a general election where the leader of the majority winning party is selected to be the Prime Minister. All members of the federal legislature, the Parliament, are directly elected. Elections in Pakistan take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
Administration and governments
Provincial and Local governments
There are four provincial governments that rule the four provinces of the state. The Chief Minister heads the provincial government. All provincial assemblies are unicameral, elected for five years. The Governors appointed by President after consulting the Prime minister, act only as representatives of federal government in the province and do not have any part in running the government.
The provincial governments tend to have the greatest influence over most Pakistanis' daily lives. The tribal and Local government functions at the basic level. It is the third level of government, consisting Jirga in rural tribal areas.
Taxation and budget
Pakistan has a complex taxation system of more than 70 unique taxes administered by at least 37 tax collection institutions of the Government of Pakistan. Taxation is a debated and controversial issue in public and political science circle of the country, and according to the International Development Committee, Pakistan had a lower-than-average tax take. Only 0.57% of Pakistanis, or 768,000 people out of a population of 190 million pay income tax.
The Finance Minister of Pakistan presents the annual federal budget in the Parliament in the midst of the year, and it has to be passed by both houses of the Parliament. The budget is preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial fiscal year.
National Finance Commission program overview
Constituted under the Article 160 of the Constitution of Pakistan by the Constitution, the National Finance Commission Award (NFC) program is a series of planned economic programs to take control of financial imbalances and equally manage the financial resources for the four provinces to meet their expenditure liabilities while alleviating the horizontal fiscal imbalances.
According to stipulations and directions of the Constitution, the provisional governments and Federal government compete to get higher share of the program's revenues in order to stabilize their own financial status.
Ministries and divisions
|Federal Ministerial Departments||Ministerial Divisions||Creation|
|Cabinet Secretariat||Cabinet Division
Capital Administration and Development Division
|Climate Change||Climate Change Division|
|Commerce and Textile Industry||Commerce Division
Textile Industry Division
|Defence Production||Defence Production Division||1972|
|Federal Education and Professional Training||Federal Education and Professional Training Division|
|Finance, Revenue, Economic Affairs||Finance Division
Economic Affairs Division
|Foreign Affairs||Foreign Affairs Division
|Housing and Works||Housing and Works Division|
|Human Rights||Human Rights Division|
|Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage||Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage Division|
|Industries and Production||Industries and Production Division|
|Information Technology and Telecommunication||Information Technology and Telecommunication Division|
|Inter-Provincial Coordination||Inter Provincial Coordination Division|
|Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit Baltistan||Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan Division|
|Law and Justice||Law and Justice Division|
|Maritime Affairs||Maritime Affairs Division|
|Narcotics Control||Narcotics Control Division|
|Parliamentary Affairs||Parliamentary Affairs Division|
|Planning and Development||Planning and Development Division|
|National Food Security and Research||National Food Security and Research Division|
|National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination||National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination Division|
|Religious Affairs and Inter-faith Harmony||Religious Affairs and Inter-faith Harmony Division|
|States and Frontier Regions||States and Frontier Regions Division|
|Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development||Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development Division|
|Postal Services||Postal Services Division|
|Science and Technology||Science and Technology Division|
|Water Resources||Water Resources Division|
- Abdus Salam Centre for Physics
- Academy of Educational Planning and Management
- Accountant General Pakistan Revenues
- Airports Security Force
- Alternative Energy Development Board
- Akthar Hameed Khan National Centre for Rural Development
- Animal Quarantine Department
- Anti-Narcotics Force
- Armament Research and Development Establishment
- Associated Press of Pakistan
- Attorney-General for Pakistan
- Auditor General of Pakistan
- Board of Investment
- Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment
- Cabinet Committee on National Security
- Capital Development Authority
- Central Board of Film Censors
- Central Power Purchasing Agency
- Chief Commissionerate for Afghan Refugees
- Civil Aviation Authority
- College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan
- Controller General of Accounts
- Competition Commission of Pakistan
- Construction Technology Training Institute
- Council for Work and Housing Research
- Council of Common Interests
- Council of Islamic Ideology
- Defence Export Promotion Organization
- Defence Science and Technology Organisation
- Department of Archeology and Museums
- Department of Communications Security
- Department of Plant Protection
- Department of Stationary and Forms
- Directorate General of Civil Defence
- Civil Defence Academy
- National Institute of Fire Technology
- Directorate General of Defence Purchase
- Directorate General of Immigration and Passports
- Directorate General of Munitions Production
- Directorate General of Special Education and Social Welfare
- Directorate General of Trade Organisations
- Directorate of Electronic Media and Publication
- Directorate of Workers Education
- Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan
- Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority
- Economic Coordination Committee
- Election Commission of Pakistan
- Employees Old-Age Benefits Institution
- ENAR Petrotech Services
- Engineering Development Board
- Estate Office
- Export Development Fund
- Export–Import Bank of Pakistan
- Export Processing Zone Authority
- Evacuee Trust Property Board
- Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education
- Federal Board of Revenue
- Federal Directorate of Education
- Federal Employees Benevolent and Group Insurance Fund
- Federal Flood Commission
- Federal Government Employees Housing Foundation
- Federal Investigation Agency
- National Response Centre for Cyber Crime
- Federal Land Commission
- Federal Ombudsman of Pakistan
- Federal Public Service Commission
- Federal Judicial Academy
- Financial Monitoring Unit
- Fisheries Development Board
- Foreign Service of Pakistan
- Frontier Constabulary
- Frontier Corps
- Gazette of Pakistan
- Geological Survey of Pakistan
- Global Change Impact Studies Centre
- Government Holdings Private Limited
- Government Shipping Office
- Gwadar Port Authority
- Heavy Electrical Complex
- Heavy Industries Taxila
- Higher Education Commission of Pakistan
- Human Organ Transplant Authority
- Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan
- Ignite National Technology Fund
- Institute of Bankers Pakistan
- Indus River System Authority
- Institute of Regional Studies
- Intellectual Property Organisation of Pakistan
- Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan
- Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan
- Institute of Optronics
- Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad
- Intelligence Bureau
- Inter-Services Intelligence
- Inter-State Gas Systems Limited
- Iqbal Academy
- Islamabad Capital Territory Administration
- Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works
- Karachi Port Trust
- Khan Research Laboratories
- Lakhara Coal Development Company
- Law and Justice Commission of Pakistan
- Livestock and Dairy Development Board
- Management Services Wing
- Marine Fisheries Department
- Maritime Security Agency
- Mercantile Marine Department
- Military Lands and Cantonments Department
- Military Vehicles Research and Development Establishment
- National Academy for Prisons Administration
- National Academy of Performing Arts
- National Accountability Bureau
- National Archives of Pakistan
- National Bioethics Committee
- National Book Foundation
- National Command Authority (Pakistan)
- Centre of Excellence for Nuclear Security
- Strategic Plans Division Force
- National Commission for Child Welfare and Development
- National Commission for Government Reforms
- National Commission for Human Development
- National Commission for Human Rights
- National Commission on the Status of Women
- National Counter Terrorism Authority
- National Crises Management Cell
- National Database and Registration Authority
- National Disaster Management Authority
- National Institute of Disaster Management
- National Education Assessment System
- National Education Foundation
- National Electric Power Regulatory Authority
- National Energy Conservation Centre
- National Engineering and Scientific Commission
- National Engineering Services Pakistan
- National Fertilizer Corporation
- National Fertilizer Marketing Limited
- National Forensic Science Agency
- National Highway Authority
- National Highways and Motorway Police
- National Industrial Parks Development and Management Company
- National Industrial Relations Commission
- National Information Technology Board
- National Institute of Electronics
- National Institute of Folk and Traditional Heritage
- National Institute of Health
- National Institute of Oceanography
- National Institute of Population Studies
- National Institute of Science and Technical Education
- National Insurance Company
- National Intelligence Directorate
- National Language Promotion Department
- National Library of Pakistan
- National Logistics Cell
- National Museum of Pakistan
- National Police Academy
- National Police Bureau
- National Productivity Organization
- National Radio Telecommunications Corporation
- National School of Public Policy
- National Security Council
- National Telecommunication Corporation
- National Textile University
- National Tariff Commission
- National Training Bureau
- National Transmission and Despatch Company
- National Transport Research Centre
- National University of Sciences and Technology
- National Veterinary Lab
- National Vocational and Technical Training Commission
- Oil and Gas Development Company
- Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority
- Overseas Employment Corporation
- Overseas Pakistanis Foundation
- Pakistan Academy for Rural Development
- Pakistan Academy of Letters
- Pakistan Aeronautical Complex
- Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
- Pakistan Agricultural Storage and Services Corporation
- Pak-Arab Refinery Company
- Pakistan Armed Forces
- Inter-Services Public Relations
- Inter Services Selection Board
- National Defence University
- Institute for Strategic Studies, Research and Analysis
- Pakistan Air Force
- Pakistan Army
- Pakistan Navy
- Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
- Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal
- Pakistan Bar Council
- Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation
- Pakistan Bureau of Statistics
- Pakistan Coast Guards
- Pakistan Commissioner for Indus Waters
- Pakistan Cotton Standards Institute
- Pakistan Council for Architects and Town Planners
- Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies
- Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources
- Pakistan Council for Science and Technology
- National Commission for Science and Technology
- Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
- Pakistan Cricket Board
- Pakistan Customs
- Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority
- Pakistan Engineering Company
- Pakistan Engineering Council
- Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
- Pakistan Gems and Jewellery Development Company
- Pakistan Horticulture Development and Export Company
- Pakistan Hunting and Sporting Arms Development Company
- Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation
- Pakistan Industrial Technical Assistance Centre
- Pakistan Infrastructure Bank
- Pakistan Institute for Parliamentary Services
- Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design
- Pakistan Institute of Management
- Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences
- Pakistan Institute of Public Finance Accountants
- Pakistan Institute of Trade and Development
- Pakistan International Airlines Corporation
- Pakistan LNG Limited
- Pakistan LNG Terminals Limited
- Pakistan Machine Tool Factory
- Pakistan Manpower Institute
- Pakistan Marine Academy
- Pakistan Medical and Dental Council
- Pakistan Health Research Council
- Pakistan Meteorological Department
- National Agromet Centre
- Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation
- Pakistan National Accreditation Council
- Pakistan National Commission for UNESCO
- Pakistan National Council of the Arts
- Pakistan National Shipping Corporation
- Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority
- Pakistan Nursing Council
- Pakistan Oilseed Development Board
- Pakistan Ordnance Factories
- Pakistan Petroleum
- Pakistan Post
- Pakistan Public Works Department
- Pakistan Railways
- Pakistan Rangers
- Pakistan Reinsurance Company Limited
- Pakistan Science Foundation
- Pakistan Museum of Natural History
- Pakistan Scientific and Technological Information Center
- Pakistan Software Export Board
- Pakistan Sports Board
- Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority
- Pakistan State Oil
- Pakistan Steel Mills
- Pakistan Stone Development Company
- Pakistan Telecommunication Authority
- Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited
- Pakistan Television Corporation
- Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation
- Pakistan Veterinary Medical Council
- PHA Foundation
- Pharmacy Council of Pakistan
- Planning Commission of Pakistan
- Port Qasim Authority
- Power Information Technology Company
- Press Council of Pakistan
- Printing Corporation of Pakistan
- Private Educational Institution Regulatory Authority
- Private Power and Infrastructure Board
- Public Private Partnership Authority
- Public Procurement Regulatory Authority
- Quaid-e-Azam Academy
- Quaid-e-Azam Mazar Management Board
- Ruet-e-Hilal Committee
- Saindak Metals Limited
- Secretariat Training Institute
- Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan
- Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority
- Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission of Pakistan
- Special Communications Organization
- Staff Welfare Organization
- State Bank of Pakistan
- State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan
- Strategic Export Control Division
- Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited
- Sui Southern Gas Company
- Survey of Pakistan
- Technology Upgradation and Skill Development Company
- Textile Commissioner's Organization
- Trade Development Authority of Pakistan
- Trade Dispute Resolution Organization
- Trading Corporation of Pakistan
- Utility Stores Corporation
- Virtual University of Pakistan
- Wah Metallurgical Laboratory
- Water and Power Development Authority
- Workers Welfare Fund
- Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited
- Zoological Survey Department
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- Ministry of Finance of the Government of Pakistan
- Grade 22
- Statistics Division of the Government of Pakistan
- Federal Bureau of Statistics of the Government of Pakistan
- Pakistan Institute of International Affairs
- Gazette of Pakistan
- Economic Coordination Committee
- Types of Government Servants in Pakistan
- List of provincial governments of Pakistan
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- The President of Pakistan
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